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Understanding Tennis Elbow

Tennis Elbow, medically known as lateral epicondylitis, is a common musculoskeletal condition that affects not only tennis players but also individuals engaged in various activities that involve repetitive arm motions. This condition can be painful and disruptive to daily life, but with the right knowledge and management, it is often treatable. In this comprehensive article, we will explore Tennis Elbow in depth, covering its causes, symptoms, treatment options, and prevention strategies.

What Is Tennis Elbow?

Tennis Elbow is a condition that primarily affects the tendons on the outside of the elbow, where they attach to the lateral epicondyle (the bony bump on the outer part of the elbow). These tendons connect to the muscles that extend the wrist and fingers. When these tendons become irritated or damaged, it leads to the development of tennis elbow.

Causes of Tennis Elbow

  1. Repetitive Motion: The most common cause of tennis elbow is repetitive arm and wrist movements, particularly those involving gripping and twisting. Activities such as playing tennis (hence the name), gardening, painting, typing, and using hand tools can contribute to the condition.
  2. Overgripping: Over gripping is often a cause of Tennis Elbow. If you partake in a racket sport, having the wrong grip size can cause overuse of these muscles leading to tennis elbow. However, this isn’t limited to tennis. Excessive mouse use, occupations such as Barbers and hairdressers, who use scissors all day, can also create these problems.
  3. Age: While tennis elbow can affect people of all ages, it is more common in individuals between the ages of 30 and 50.
  4. Incorrect Technique: In sports like tennis or golf, using improper technique can increase the risk of developing tennis elbow. This is especially true for beginners who have not yet mastered the proper mechanics of their chosen sport. Getting a coach to check yur technique as well as your grip size will really help you to avoid this condition.

Symptoms of Tennis Elbow

The hallmark symptom of tennis elbow is pain and tenderness on the outer part of the elbow. This pain may radiate down the forearm and worsen with specific movements, such as gripping an object, lifting, or shaking hands. Other common symptoms include:

  • Weakness in the wrist or hand.
  • Difficulty in holding objects.
  • Stiffness in the elbow joint.
  • Pain that worsens with repetitive wrist and hand movements.
  • Morning stiffness or pain that lingers throughout the day.


A healthcare provider will typically diagnose tennis elbow based on a physical examination, review of medical history, and discussion of symptoms. In some cases, imaging tests like X-rays or MRI scans may be recommended to rule out other conditions or assess the extent of damage to the tendons.

Treatment Options

The management of tennis elbow typically involves a combination of conservative treatments aimed at relieving pain and promoting healing. Surgical intervention is only considered in severe and persistent cases. Here are some common treatment options:

  1. Rest: Giving the affected arm and elbow a break from activities that exacerbate the pain is crucial. This may involve modifying or temporarily discontinuing specific tasks or sports.
  2. Ice: Applying ice packs to the affected area can help reduce inflammation and pain.
  3. Physical Therapy: Physiotherapists and Sports Therapists can use exercises and stretches to strengthen the forearm muscles and ensure the correct muscles are firing at the correct time. Massage can also be used to help release the tension in the muscles.
  4. Bracing: Tennis Elbow braces are hugely useful as they effectively move the attachment point of the muscles forward. In tennis elbow the tendon gets damaged from the constant tugging. The brace allows the tendon to have a break and moves the attachment point forward, this still allows movement while the tendon heals.
  5. Beyond the Elbow: Assessment of the whole upper body is needed to find a permanent solution. The tendon damage, doesn’t occur in isolation, the whole mechanics of the arm needs to be assessed and treated.

Prevention Strategies

Preventing this condition involves adopting certain habits and techniques that reduce the risk of overuse and strain on the forearm tendons:

  1. Proper Technique: Whether in sports or daily activities, using proper techniques and ergonomics can significantly reduce the risk of developing tennis elbow.
  2. Equipment: Ensure that sports equipment, tools, and devices are well-suited to your size and strength. Use equipment with ergonomic grips and handles.
  3. Warm-up and Stretching: Always warm up before engaging in activities that involve repetitive arm motions. Stretching exercises that target the forearm muscles can also help post exercise.
  4. Strength Training: Use strength training to ensure your whole upper body remains in balance. Building strategic exercises into your fitness routine to improve the resilience of these muscles is essential.
  5. Rest and Recovery: Using Sports Massage to help keep your body in balance and limit tension on the forearm tendons is hugely valuable.

Tennis elbow is a common condition that can cause significant pain and disruption in daily life. However, with appropriate care and treatment, most individuals can recover and return to their regular activities.

Find out how we approach assessment and treatment of Tennis Elbow here.

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